The Thai equivalent of the US department of Motor vehicles is called the Department of Land Transportation. The department of Land Transportation is the government organization that is, amongst many other things, responsible for the issuing of both the regular Thai drivers licenses and international Thai driving licence's.
The department of Land transportation's head office is based in the Chachutjak district of Bangkok, opposite the well know weekend market. You can visit this location to get a driver's licence or you can visit the DLT station in your district or province. Below is a list of the Bangkok offices and the districts they cover.
1032 Phaholyothin Road
Lardyao, Chatuchak district.
tel: 02-272-5322, 02-272-5493.
Covers the districts: Pomprarb Satruphai, Samphanthawong, Patumwan, Bangrak, Dusit, Phayathai, Bangsue, Huay kwang, Bangkhen, Bangkapi, Don muang, Chatuchak, Din daeng, Lardprao, Saimhai and Rachathevee.
Bangkok Area 1:
Soi Wat Hua Krabu at km 4.5,
Thakarm, Bangkhunthien district,
Covers the districts: Bangkhunthian, Bang bon, Jomthong, Thonburi, Klongsarn, Radburana, Thungkru, Bangkolaem, Yannawa and Sathorn.
Bangkok Area 2:
51 Moo 5 Suanphak Road
tel: 02-882-1620 to 35.
Covers the districts: Talingchan, Bangplad, Bangkok Noi, Bangkok Yai, Phasichareon, Nongkhaem and Pranakorn.
Bangkok Area 3:
opposite Soi Sukhumvit 62/1,
tel: 02-332-9688 to 96
Covers the districts: Prakhanong, Pravate, Suan luang, Klong toey and Wattana.
Bangkok Area 4:
102/11 Liabwaree Road
tel: 02-543-2010 to 12
Covers the districts: Minburi, Nongjok, Lard krabang, Bungkum, Saphansoong and Kannajao.
Details of the provincial land transport offices (in Thai):
Nonthaburi Pathumthani Samut prakan Ayuttaya Ang Thong
Chainut Nakorn Nayok Lop Buri Sara buri Sing Buri Suphan Buri
Chachoengsao Chonburi Rayong Chantaburi Trad Prachinburi Sa Kaeo
Kanchanaburi Nakorn Patom Rat Buri Petchaburi Prachuab Samut Songkhram Samut Sakhon
Nakorn Ratchasima Chaiyapum Buriram Surin Sisaket Maha sarakam
Khon Khaen Loei Sakon Nakhon Nongkhai Udon Thani Nong Bua Lamphu
Karasin Nakorn Phanom Roi Et Mukdahan Ubon Ratchathani Yasothon Amnatcharoen
Kamphaengphet Tak Sukhothai Nakhon Sawan Uthaithani
Phitsanulok Phichit Petchaboon Phrae Nan Uttaradit Amnatcharoen
Chiang Mai Chiang Rai Phayao Mae Hong Son Lamphun Lampang
Chumpon Ranong Surat Thani Phang Nga Krabi Phuket Nakhon Si Thammarat
Trang Patthalung Satun Songkhla Pattani Yala Narathiwat